Who Forted? Magazine

Grapes of Wrath: The Fall River/Dighton Mystery

By now, it’s a well-accepted fact that the Vikings beat Columbus to the New World (i.e. North America) by a couple hundred years. Settlements have been found in Newfoundland along the Eastern Canadian coast. But exactly how far south they traveled in North America is still a mystery. But could a buried warrior and a strange stone hold the key to the mystery, or is it just the tip of an archaeological iceberg?

Fall River, Massachusetts, is perhaps best known for the violent double homicide leading to the murder trial of Lizzie Borden, but 50 years before that crime, the town was made famous by another shocking headline. Near the present site of New England Gas Company where 5th Street meets Hartwell, workmen excavating a hill uncovered a skeleton in a shallow grave in 1831. According to a contemporary account published in 1839 for American Monthly Magazine, the skeleton was buried in a sitting position encased in coarse bark with its head one foot below ground level. It appears the young man had possibly been mummified either naturally or intentionally (“The preservation of this body may be the result of some embalming process, and this hypothesis is strengthened by the fact that the skin has the appearance of having been tanned…”) and wrapped in a coarse cloth resembling burlap. He wore a large brass breastplate across his chest, and around his waist was

Original sketch of the Skeleton in Armor republished in 1953 by the Fall River Herald News.

Original sketch of the Skeleton in Armor republished in 1953 by the Fall River Herald News.

“…a belt composed of brass tubes, each four and a half inches in length and three-sixteenths of an inch in diameter… the length of the tube being the width of the belt. The tubes are of thin brass, cast upon hollow reeds, and were fastened together by pieces of sinew… The arrows are of brass, thin, flat, and triangular in shape, with a round hole cut through near the base. The shaft was fastened to the head by inserting the latter in an opening at the end of the wood, and then tying it with a sinew through the round hole, a mode of constructing the weapon never practiced by the Indians…”

There is some historical debate as to the last statement. Brass was not unfamiliar to native tribes who had been known to trade goods for brass kettles which they melted down for arrowheads and adornments in the 1600s. One brass tube was donated to Copenhagen’s Peabody Museum in 1887; analysis revealed it was indeed brass. Without modern dating techniques, though, the age of the skeleton couldn’t be determined. Some people insisted it was some lost Indian chief. Others suggested it was undoubtedly Phoenician and proved that some forgotten Mediterranean peoples had crossed the Atlantic and formed the mythical Atlantis “beyond the Pillars of Hercules” (or Rock of Gibraltar) as recorded by Plato. Others insisted it was just a hoax.

Aftermath of Great Fire of 1843.

Aftermath of Great Fire of 1843.

The remains and artifacts were carefully excavated and placed on display at the Fall River Athanaeum. Unfortunately—or curiously, as some have pointed out—the museum housed in the old Town Hall burned to the ground in the Great Fire of 1843. The famed “Skeleton in Armor” was destroyed, and his true identity forever lost by unceremonial cremation. Yet his story lived on through the poem “A Skeleton in Armour” published in 1841. Its author, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, made an entirely different bold claim:

 

“I was a Viking old!
My deeds, though manifold,
No Skald in song has told,
No Saga taught thee!
Take heed, that in thy verse
Thou dost the tale rehearse,
Else dread a dead man’s curse;
For this I sought thee.”

Whether Longfellow truly believed the skeleton was Norse (and that the Norse were also responbibsible for construction of Newport’s Old Stone Mill) is still uncertain, but he was likely influenced by Danish historian Carl Rafn who published Antiquitates Americanæ—a large body of his work related to early Viking exploration in North America before Columbus—in 1837. Norse writings told of land west of Greenland they discovered and explored. They called it Vinland, translated by some historians as “Wine Land”, so named for its abundant grape vines. Finally in the 1960s, archaeologists began to unearth the first definitive proof of Norse settlements along the coast of Newfoundland, Canada, at Jellyfish Cove (or L’Anse aux Meadows). There is some ongoing debate as to whether Vinland referred to grapes or meadows. Some archaeologists speculated that this settlement was indeed Vinland, while other researchers feel that the name implies that the Vikings traveled much farther south into New England where wild grapes would’ve been found in abundance.

But there’s another puzzling piece to the mystery, from just a few miles north of Fall River on the Taunton River. It’s called Dighton Rock, and some people believe it’s further proof of the Norse in Massachusetts.

First photograph taken of Dighton Rock in 1853.

First photograph taken of Dighton Rock in 1853.

Since the late 17th century, the strangely carved boulder known as Dighton Rock has been a great curiosity and point of controversy. No one can be sure of how long it had been endlessly flooded and uncovered by the tides when John Danforth first sketched the strange pictographs in 1680. Though many attempts have been made to pinpoint an exact telltale calling card to tie it in perfectly with a specific group of people, even the best evidence is highly questionable. Explanations range from Native Americans documenting the first white settlers to the Ancient Chinese to Portuguese explorers landing there in 1511. And yes, of course, even the Vikings.

Carl Rafn believed these inscriptions were Norse in origin, perhaps telling of a voyage by Leif the Lucky in 1000AD (which fed right into Longfellow’s poetic, romantic interpretation). But he’s not the only one to have fanciful ideas behind it. Count Antoine Court de Gebelin of Paris declared that he had uncovered its secrets in 1781. It was, according to him, a testimonial from a ship crew who had traveled there from Carthage in ancient times and told the natives of their perilous voyage. A Harvard scholar named Samuel Harris, Jr., claimed to have found the Hebrew words for “king”, “priest”, and “idol” inscribed on the stone in 1807. Twenty-four years later, Maryland teacher Ira Hill announced that it was documented proof of a biblical voyage from the Old Testament:

And King Solomon made a navy of ships in Eziongeber… And Hiram sent in the navy his servants, shipmen that had knowledge of the sea, with the servants of Solomon. And they came to Ophir, and fetched from thence gold, four hundred and twenty talents, and brought it to King Solomon.” – I Kings 9

How could so many ideas come from one stone? Just look at the differences in transcription of the stone between 1680 and 1854.

Dighton Rock inscriptions compiled by Edward Tuft

Dighton Rock inscriptions compiled by Edward Tufte

Weathering isn’t the only impact the rock has received over the years. As seen on the changing inscriptions, there has been evidence of vandalism over the centuries. One possible written text over the petroglyphs could be translated to read “Injun Trail to Spring in Swomp → yds. 167”, implying directions written after 1680 by (somewhat) literate settlers. Perhaps the most important point about Dighton Rock was made by Professor Edmund Delabarre of Brown University. After discrediting the Viking theory of the stone’s origins, he suggested that psychology could hold the key to the perplexing number of theories about the stone. For him, it was all a matter of psychic projection—similar to the Rorschach test, each examiner is taking these simple scratches and imposing their own opinions onto the stone. He concluded that the pictographs were most likely made by native tribes and their meanings corrupted by people having their own agendas and visions for what history might have been.

While we can’t say that an armor-clad skeleton lost in a blaze or carved symbols on a weathered stone say for sure that Vikings landed in New England, it still remains a theory that tantalizes rogue archaeologists. For all we know, they did see the shoreline of Massachusetts a thousand years ago, but it will take much more than a worn puzzling stone or brass tube to prove it. Still, both the Skeleton in Armor and Dighton Stone remain puzzles yet to be completely unlocked.

Ken Summers
Ken Summers is a historical researcher, author, and contributor/resident ghost geek for Who Forted? who started poking around northeast Ohio for hauntings just before GHI was born. After too much paradrama, he went solo with his website Moonspenders and delved mostly into researching history, leaving the super-serious "investigating" to the most staunch believers (a.k.a. "the Black Shirts"). Ken finds himself lost somewhere between "too smart to believe every legend at face value" and optimistic curiosity mixed with wishful thinking. He's had a handful of strange experiences that certainly fall under the category of "unexplained". Secretly, he wants to marry a werewolf and build a fully-functioning TARDIS.
Ken Summers
Ken Summers

6 Comments

  1. Conquistador3

    01/21/2013 at 4:59 AM

    One quick thing about the Dighton Rock.
    Around 1860 a few wood tablets were discovered on Easter Island, inscribed with mysterious hieroglyphs. Called rongorongo, this language has long defied all attempts to decipher it: only recently the code has been partially cracked (read on, though).
    According to Easter Islanders interviewed by missionaries and scholars at the time, nobody knew what was written on them, as all those capable of reading them had been long gone, either killed by smallpox or taken away by Peruvian slavers.
    Recent research seems to have shed some light on rongorongo, though there are still plenty of black holes.
    It appears to be something called “pre-writing”, meaning an extremely primitive alphabet used not to “store” a language but as a mnemonic aid. Some glyphs appear to represent words, other particular pronunciations and other still abstract concepts.
    One of the tablets has been partially translated and it seems to be somewhat linked to a religious prayer or a ritual chant. In short it was used by someone (a priest?) to help him remember a long prayer or chant. He could not “read” it as we read from a religious or magical text but it helped him remember a long and difficult speech/prayer/chant/spell by telling him how to pronounce difficult words or where exactly to insert concepts.
    Could the Dighton Rock be a form of pre-writing as well?

    Another interesting fact is rongorongo appears to be of very recent origin. The exact date is hotly debated but it appears to have been invented at earliest in the first part of the XVII century, though scholars tend to favor a late XVIII century origin now. It’s speculated (in academic circles) the spur for rongorongo was the arrival of a Spanish delegation in 1770 which brought it many treaties to be signed by Easter Island chiefs and worthies. It appears the Islanders were deeply struck by how much importance the Spaniards put in written words and somehow attributed to them magical powers. This would explain why rongorongo was known only to a small cadre of “initiates”.
    Could the Dighton Rock have been created by a Native American impressed by the written works the European prized so much, like their Bibles?

    • Ken Summers

      01/21/2013 at 8:08 AM

      I’d say connecting this stone with carvings at Easter Island is a bit of a stretch… even saying the etchings are some similar form of written language. There are at least a dozen other large stones in eastern Massachusetts with pictographs on them too. Even here in Ohio on Kelly’s Island, glacial grooves are etched with animal shapes and other prehistoric carvings from Eastern Woodland tribes before they were driven westward. Often, these symbolize animal spirits, sacred sites, or stories told in images. Native Americans in the eastern states may not have had a written language, but they were very avid storytellers.

      • Conquistador3

        01/23/2013 at 2:43 PM

        My idea is they could be a form of “pre-writing” as well.
        “Pre-writing” is extremely hard to translate without an interpreter trained in it and, apparently, very hard even for linguists to tell as such.
        I was inspired in this idea by Sequoyah, the Cherokee smith who invented the so called Cherokee syllabary, inspired by the White Man’s books and newspapers.

  2. S.

    01/21/2013 at 7:42 AM

    So is the opinion of mainstream scholarship that both the skeleton and stone are the work of native tribes? I liked the emergence of the little guy on the left after the early eighteenth century. I wonder if that was an early ancient astronaut hoax. Also, it bears mentioning that it was probably aliens. Great article, it was very well written and seemed thoroughly researched.

    • Ken Summers

      01/21/2013 at 8:03 AM

      Unfortunately, with the skeleton being destroyed so long ago, there’s nothing definite to skim from it, though the two surviving brass tubes are similar to other native artifacts found in the New York/New England area. so many scholars to chalk it up to the natives and their trading practices.

      Definitely not an ancient astronaut hoax; this was never suspected to be extraterrestrial. LOL And thanks… I’ve been slacking off on the quality of my articles lately, so I wanted to get back to thorough research. Some of the included links go much more in-depth on the matters… though the Portuguese explorer connection website is a bit tough to swallow after seeing all those interpretations of the weathered carvings. Bear in mind the stone was still in the river for about 300 years after its earliest mentions, left open to the elements–and vandals. Plenty of opportunity for a crafty person with a chisel to add their own mark on it.

  3. Crocker

    03/16/2013 at 12:49 PM

    Based on where the rock was originally found [in an area of the Taunton River that had it being subject to being submerged by the tide] I’m glad they moved it to a place of relative safety, despite the vandalism that may or may not have been added/inflicted to/on it since.

    I grew up in the general area, and had heard stories about the stone being a sort of marker/warning sign the natives had carved into the rock warning others about a paranormal hotspot a bit further up the river. The area is somewhere in the Hockomock swamp and is the source of what they today refer to as “The Bridgewater Triangle.”

    I had also heard stories of this area containing a small grassy island that was the site of a communal grave that was opened by archeologists/anthropologists back in the 30′s or 40′s that was noted for having red ochre bubble up from the opened grave, appearing like blood soaked soil. Freaked the workers out.

    All of this is just teenage urban legending [to turn it into a verb somehow] and myth-making/repeating though, as I would not be able to readily produce sources at this exact moment in time, though one could find all of this easily enough by googling any of the salient details mentioned.

    I also find it coincidental, perhaps, that so many areas that could be considered vile vortices, window/flap areas or weak spots in the wall between worlds are so proximal to odd petroglyphic artifacts.

    Another area similar, somewhat, to Hockomock swamp, “Skinwalker Ranch” in Utah [the whole Bigelow "space guy" thing] is very close to a pretty cool collection of petroglyphs that some have suggested may have a connection/explanation to the “otherworldly” stuff that happens in that area.

    Of course, it could be argued that just about anywhere could be said to be close to some kind of native/aboriginal site of some kind of significance or other.

    To me, in my own personal opinion, I feel that they are all tied up in some vast hidden network of knowledge that has Lovecraftian implications for the whole world, but especially for humanity. Ancient warnings, carved in stone, against getting “effed in the a” by interdimensional/hyperterrestrial trickster types that were known to haunt these areas, that we are now ignoring at our own peril…

    I hope so anyway, because other than that, I reeeeeeally do not have any other kind of retirement plan going for me, so if zombies or elder gods don’t start trying to destroy everything soon, I am going to have to have a massive yardsale to get rid of all of this ammunition and all of these soapstone statues and warding sigils…

    Great article, this website is getting more and more… MORE, all the time, and it is a pleasure coming here.

    Full disclosure; Being of Portuguese heritage, I am, of course, more likey to lean towards the theory that the grafitti on the stone is Portuguese, which is the current theory proposed/enforced by the folks who actually have possession of the stone, but then the Lovecraft/Ridley Scott-style theory of it being a warning/signpost runs a close second…

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